- Jamestown, Virginia, site of the first permanent English settlement in North America
- 100 years before the American Revolution, the first rebellion in the colonies led by Nathaniel Bacon was
- Angered by the economic crisis and relations with the local Indians, Bacon’s army burned Jamestown to the ground.
- A burnt crust attached to the revo is all that remains of the parish church.
Archaeologists in Jamestown, Virginia—the site of the first permanent English settlement in North America—have uncovered rare evidence linking the first rebellion in the British colonies.
In September 1676, wealthy landowner Nathaniel Bacon, in what he saw as an appeasement of the local Native Tribes governor William Berkeley, led a siege of Jamestown and burned down the new settlement, including its parish church.
More than 340 years later, in 2019, Jamestown rediscovery archaeologist Sean Romo uncovered burnt deposits beneath the surface where the church may have been.
At the time, the Romans believed that the charing could have come from one of three sources – including a fire that retook the first church on that site in 1608 and Confederate troops hastily in 1862. had returned.
But there was also a chance that it came from a later church, which was destroyed during Bacon’s rebellion of 1676.
After examining the artifacts found on top of the burnt crust, the team at Jamestown Rediscovery concluded that they were from just after the 1676 fire.
This means that the burnt remains below belonged to the church destroyed in the fire, Virginia Gazette informed earlier.
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A group of poor farmers, indentured servants and enslaved Africans burned the colony to the ground in 1676 against Jamestown’s governor, William Berkeley.
Among the items found at the top of the deposit were window sills, metal frames used to hold glass panes in casement windows together.
The lead is often etched with the glazier’s initials and date, providing important clues to the building’s origins.
in a videoDan Gamble, senior mentor at Jamestown Rediscovery, says the leads ‘sometimes hide some secrets.’
The details in the leads that Romeo found enabled him to date them accurately.
Archaeologists with the Jamestown Rediscovery discovered a burnt crust at the site of the historic settlement that came from the parish church that was destroyed in the fire
Items that helped date the burnout were window leads, grooved metal frames used to hold glass panes in casement windows together. Image: Example of a 17th-century window lead
The church that burned in the rebellion was not the first in Jamestown – which had been destroyed 68 years earlier.
It was not even the second where Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
Instead, it was the fourth – made of wood and brick, it took more than 11 years to complete.
The current structure, the seventh house of worship on the property, was completed in 1907 and is still in use today as an Anglican church.
While many consider Bacon’s rebellion to be the first rebellion against British rule, it can be attributed to ‘myriad reasons’. National Park Service.
A painting of British settlers at Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in America, 1608
These include increased competition from Maryland, an increasingly restricted English market, declining tobacco prices, and rising costs of English-made goods.
In addition, many colonists protested Gov. Berkeley’s failure to protect them from attacks from Native American tribes.
He aimed to drive the Indians out of Virginia but Berkeley pleaded for restraint.
Bacon eventually incited the poor peasants to a violent rebellion against Berkeley’s rule, which he saw as corrupt.
His army burned Jamestown to the ground on September 19, 1676.
Bacon had plenty of time, but he died of dysentery on October 26, 1676, causing his rebellion to break out soon after. (Berkeley was eventually recalled to England.)
According to archeology director Dave Givens, the discovery links the story of the church, the rebellion, and Jamestown itself.
“We have positive evidence of Bacon’s rebellion and burning,” Givens told the Gazette.
‘The cool thing about this dig is that as it develops, it will help us understand the layers and what we see every day.’
Today, visitors to historic Jamestown can take a walking tour recounting the events of the rebellion and its impact on the colony and local Native communities.
The Tercentennial Monument also hosts a re-enactment of the burning of the city as happened on September 19, 1676.
Although the rebellion took place 345 years ago, the parish church continues to provide clues to the inhabitants of the settlement.
In 2018, a headless skeleton was discovered at the site – archaeologists believe it was Sir George Eardley, the governor of Jamestown and one of the first colonists to own slaves.
The Village of Jamestown, circa 1615. A group of poor farmers, indentured servants and African slaves, led by Nathaniel Bacon, attacked Governor William Berkeley in 1676, burning Jamestown to the ground.
Experts say that the skull was probably worn out over time or destroyed by subsequent burial, not removed as a result of dishonesty.
The body was buried in the chancel, towards the front and center of the building.
‘The closer you are to the chancel, the closer you are to God, essentially,’ Jamestown Rediscovery archaeologist Caitlin Fitzgerald told WYDaily.
‘You really have to be a prominent member of society or in the clergy to be buried in the chancellor of the church.’
Eardley served as governor of the colony three times, and convened the first meeting of the House of Burgesses in 1619 – believed to be the same year enslaved African English arrived in North America.
Bones indicate that the deceased was in his late 30s or early …